De Beers Canada

Out of AfricaJim Gowans, president and CEO of De Beers Canada, tells Martin Ashcroft about the challenges of mining for diamonds in some of the remotest parts of Canada. CanadaÔÇÖs mining industry is about to enter a new chapter with the imminent opening of a record setting new diamond mine. De Beers, the name synonymous with diamonds, is on the verge of opening its Snap Lake Mine, remarkably the first mine to be opened by De Beers outside of Africa. It is also the first fully underground diamond mine in Canada. De Beers has been involved in all aspects of the diamond business since 1888, and is recognized internationally as the industry leader. The company is dedicated exclusively to the exploration for, mining and marketing of rough diamonds. The only surprise is that, although exploration activities have been undertaken wherever diamonds occur in the world, the company has not had an operational diamond mine in Canada, until now.De Beers has been active in Canada since the early 1960s and is currently working on five exploration projects ranging from early to advanced exploration. Exploration activities are directed from the Exploration Division office in Toronto, which also houses De BeersÔÇÖ Canadian mineralogical lab. Toronto is also the regional office for exploration throughout Canada and Greenland. De Beers has injected a substantial investment into Canada in recent years, devoting over $15 million for exploration. Exploration programs are now underway in the Northwest Territories, Nunavut, Manitoba, Ontario and Quebec, employing around 50 employees. Activities to date, in some cases carried out with joint venture partners, have led to the discovery of more than 230 kimberlites in 12 different areas of CanadaÔÇöabout half being diamondiferous. The current focus of De Beers CanadaÔÇÖs Mining Division is on phase two pre-production development at Snap Lake in the Northwest Territories, and on construction at the Victor Project in Northern Ontario. The Snap Lake Project, approximately 220 kilometers (roughly 140 miles) northeast of Yellowknife, just south of the tree line, received its final regulatory approvals for the construction of a mine on May 31, 2004. Due to open later this year, its construction has been a three year project, which is typical for the industry, says Jim Gowans, president and CEO of De Beers Canada, but itÔÇÖs been a much longer process than that to bring the project to fruition from the initial exploration.When De Beers first started exploration in Canada in the 1960s they were doing little more than low budget preliminary exploration, explains Gowans; ÔÇ£just summer-time sampling programs.ÔÇØ Most of its half billion dollar exploration budget has been spent from 1985 onwards. ÔÇ£You can have fairly inexpensive exploration until you start to drill and have to take the bulk samples. Diamond mines are unique in that in order to go into a feasibility study, you have to get a large bulk sample to establish the value of the diamonds in the rockÔÇönot just the grade. In the gold business or the base metal business that I used to be in, you count ounces per ton or the percentage of lead, zinc or copper in an ore body. Once you know that you can basically understand the revenue side of a ton of ore.ÔÇ£You canÔÇÖt do that with diamonds,ÔÇØ he says. ÔÇ£With diamonds, carats per ton are the key, but the carat could be worth $10 or $450, so it makes a big difference to the economics. ThatÔÇÖs where most of the money was spent in the latter ÔÇÖ80s and ÔÇÖ90s when we started doing the bulk samples for Victor and Snap Lake and Gahcho Ku├®.ÔÇØ Bulk sampling involves taking huge samples, he says, crushing it all down, dissolving the rock to release the diamonds, which then have to be cleaned and evaluated to define their worth in terms of dollars per carat. ÔÇ£In our experience in Canada it takes over $100 million to come to the point of decision making for a diamond mine,ÔÇØ says Gowans. ÔÇ£ThatÔÇÖs more than for base metal or gold companies. ThatÔÇÖs what makes it exciting, but it also adds complexity. You are looking at fairly low grades. In the base metal industry we always talked about percent metal. It could be anywhere from a half a percent to 20 percent; in the gold business youÔÇÖre talking grams per ton, or ounces. If you took a metric tonne of 1000 kilos, youÔÇÖre talking three to ten grams per 1000 kilos.ÔÇØ With diamonds, he says, the proportions are miniscule in comparison. The Victor mine, for example, is a low grade mine with around 23 to 25 carats per 100 tons of ore. With one carat being a 20th of a gram, it gives you a little over one gram of diamonds per 100 tons. ÔÇ£So the exploration is a longer process because you donÔÇÖt want to make any mistakes. You have to work hard to get the value of the ore.ÔÇØ Once the challenge of determining the right area to mine has been overcome, other challenges await. ÔÇ£As with any mining project around the world, you have to get permits for land use,ÔÇØ says Gowans, ÔÇ£environmental permits, water use permits, etc. In the Northwest Territories and Northern Ontario we also have to reflect on the socio-economic impact on the native population. We have to get Impact Benefit Agreements with the local aboriginal communities.ÔÇØ The permitting process is usually successful, he says, but it is getting more complex and is taking longer than it used to. The only permit he can remember being refused was a recent application from a uranium mine in the Northwest Territories. Diamond mines are relatively innocuous, he points out, because no chemicals are used to extract or process them, unlike other mining operations. Nevertheless, permitting can still be a frustrating experience. Authorities seem to be looking for virtually no impact at all, so the challenge for the company is how to minimize its impact. ÔÇ£At the end of the day, we do dig big holes in the ground.ÔÇØThe challenges, he says, are less from the physical side of what you have to do to comply, but more with the permitting process itself. ItÔÇÖs getting harder, not for any mal-intent on the part of the authorities, but through their concern to make sure all the issues are addressed. ÔÇ£In Snap Lake and Victor we got our permits in 18 months to two years,ÔÇØ he says. ÔÇ£We actually went to court to try to get them to simplify the process at Gahcho Ku├®, but we were only half successful.ÔÇØGahcho Ku├® is a joint venture between De Beers, Mountain Province Diamonds Inc. and Camphor Ventures, proposing to develop an open pit mine approximately 320 kilometers (200 miles) northeast of Yellowknife, a little further out than Snap Lake. Unexpectedly, the Mackenzie Valley Environmental Impact Review Board (MVEIRB) decided to refer the project for an Environmental Impact Review (EIR), the first time a mining project in the Northwest Territories has been required to undergo such a review. De Beers Canada requested a judicial review to clarify the validity of the referral under the Mackenzie Valley Resource Management Act, but the Supreme Court of the Northwest Territories issued a ruling upholding the decision on April 2nd, this year. ÔÇ£We got clarity but we ended up with a longer process,ÔÇØ says Gowans. ÔÇ£ItÔÇÖs going to add at least a year to the permitting process, so youÔÇÖre looking at two to three years now. ItÔÇÖs a bit frustrating when you think that all the diamond mines in the Northwest Territories are dealing with same issues in the same kind of area, but the permitting process has been different with all of them.ÔÇØSo what are you allowed to do during the permitting process? ÔÇ£We do engineering studies,ÔÇØ says Gowans. ÔÇ£Gahcho Ku├® is a good example. WeÔÇÖre drilling to increase the resource, we can get temporary permits for that, so weÔÇÖre expanding the ore reserve, the resource, and getting it better defined to eliminate any uncertainty in the feasibility studies. You also do a lot of baseline environmental studiesÔÇöbiophysical impact, which is the impact on fish and flora and fauna and water flows in the river systems, to look at the impact on the overall watershed. YouÔÇÖre also out in the communities having a consultation process as part of the overall permitting process.ÔÇØAnother challenge that is undergoing its own evolution is the question of Impact Benefit Agreements (IBAs) with the local First Nation peoples. ÔÇ£That adds another level of complexity but itÔÇÖs not unique to diamond mining,ÔÇØ says Gowans. ÔÇ£If I was operating a base metal mine in the same area the same conditions would apply.ÔÇØ Both Snap Lake and Victor are subject to four IBAs. In respect of Snap Lake, agreement was reached with the Yellowknives Dene First Nation in November 2005, the Tlicho Government in March 2006 and the North Slave Metis Alliance in August 2006. The last of the four impact agreements, with the Lutsel KÔÇÖe and Kache Dene First Nation members was agreed in April 2007. The official signing ceremony for the Impact Benefit Agreement with Lutsel KÔÇÖe is set to take place on Aboriginal Day, June 21, 2007 in Lutsel KÔÇÖe, NT. I wondered why they were spread out like that.ÔÇ£They all started around the same time,ÔÇØ says Gowans. ÔÇ£Once you have an instruction to determine the socio-economic impact, identifying the communities that are going to be impacted on, you have to start having discussions about the Impact Benefit Agreement. Some native organizations are fairly well organized, in which case you can get an agreement fairly quickly. They understand whatÔÇÖs required, they understand what theyÔÇÖre looking for, theyÔÇÖre committed to a long term partnership.ÔÇØ As in any other negotiation, he says, it depends on the overall capability within the organization youÔÇÖre dealing with, the level of trust between both parties, and whether everyoneÔÇÖs demands are reasonable. ÔÇ£WeÔÇÖve got two out of the four agreements at Victor already,ÔÇØ he says. ÔÇ£Of the two agreements we donÔÇÖt have, one of the communities has been struggling with flooding; you just get started negotiating and something happens in the community, so it gets put on hold. There are lots of other reasons. I think the shortest time it took to do an IBA was four days, with the North Slave Metis in Yellowknife. They knew what they were looking for, they were keen to get going on it, there was a high level of trust, so we sat down and banged it out in less than a week.ÔÇØ What do they typically ask for? I wondered, and this is where evolution comes into play. There are diamond mines already in the Northwest Territories. Snap Lake and Gahcho Ku├® will be the fourth and fifth that the First Nations have had to deal with, so their strategies have evolved with their experience. ÔÇ£The first ones were all about simple payments, training, education and jobs,ÔÇØ says Gowans. ÔÇ£Some wanted payment for the right to work in their traditional lands [almost like a license].ÔÇØ With other mines already operating, jobs are less of a priority than they were when the first agreements were negotiated; so are education and training, which others are already doing. Business development has now risen up the agenda, joint ventures with aboriginal corporations, and revenue sharing based on cash flow, or net revenues from the property. ÔÇ£Their focus changes,ÔÇØ says Gowans. ÔÇ£If they have been getting education and training from one company, perhaps they want business opportunities from another. ItÔÇÖs part of their overall strategy. Their first priority was to get people hired and working and educated and now itÔÇÖs long term business development. It changes quite a bit.ÔÇØFinding labor, now, is another challenge in the Northwest Territories. ÔÇ£The biggest issue for us, with a project up in the north in an isolated area, at a time when the resource industry is at its most active in probably 30 years, is finding trades people and management people,ÔÇØ says Gowans. ÔÇ£WeÔÇÖre just north of the tar sands in Alberta. WeÔÇÖre trying to field 800 people on a construction camp and they have 20,000 in their construction camps. Our labor costs have risen significantly above inflation over the last three years.ÔÇØTo demonstrate its commitment to the community, De Beers CanadaÔÇÖs policy is to achieve 40 percent employment of NWT residents during mine construction and 60 percent during operations. Although the market for skilled labor has proved to be highly competitive, 41 percent NWT residency employment was achieved for Snap Lake in the 2005 construction period. To assist in building a skilled northern workforce, De Beers has invested in trades training and literacy development, including a CDN $500,000 investment in the Kimberlite Career and Technical Center.There is also a strong commitment to local business. De Beers contracted with AMEC Americas Ltd. (AMEC) to perform the engineering, procurement and construction management (EPCM) for the Snap Lake Project, and both are committed to maximizing the participation of local and regional Northwest Territories businesses for the provision of goods and services. By May 2007, over $775 million had been spent on contracts and purchase orders for the construction of the mine, over $509 million of which (66 percent) had been spent with NWT businesses. The proportion of the NWT expenditure committed to Aboriginal businesses or joint ventures, was over $341 million (67 percent).NWT-based companies interested in supplying goods or bidding on projects had to make sure they were on De BeersÔÇÖ NWT Business Registry by completing a corporate profile. Competitive pricing was obtained from qualified bidders, based on a request for quotation (RFQ) or invitation to tender package, by invitation only. Unsolicited bids were not considered. All contractors selected were also expected to comply with De BeersÔÇÖ reporting requirements for the purchase of NWT goods and services and the hiring of Aboriginal and NWT residents. Once land and water use permits were received, phase one of project development at Snap Lake was to dewater the underground mine and install power and ventilation systems. Modifications were made to the bulk sample plant and over 100 underground samples were processed. The new water treatment plant was installed and tested and operating procedures were put in place to ensure compliance with the water license. The mine engineering plan, process plant design and equipment selection were finalized for the construction phase, which began in early 2005, with the opening of the winter road (of which more later). The camp that housed 111 workers in early 2005 had to be expanded to accommodate 263 people for the first construction phase (it would eventually grow to house over 700 by the end of July 2006). It would have to have all the infrastructure and facilities of a 700 bed camp. Access roads had to be completed. A receiving pad covering 30 acres (12.6 hectares) was constructed to prepare for the arrival of approximately 1400 buildings, equipment, materials and supplies for the camp. These loads, along with another 600 loads of fuel (21 million liters) were ordered and ready for shipping on the 2006 winter road. Three large fuel tanks also had to be constructed, each of which would hold 12 million liters of fuel.Work to increase the size of the airstrip began in September 2005 and was finished at the end of the year. The expansion allowed for the landing of Boeing 737 jets and Hercules aircraft, important for the transport of employees, the goods required for peak construction activities in 2006 and for ongoing operations. But air transport is more expensive than road, and even these aircraft have their limits, so the winter road is a crucial lifeline to a mining operation in this part of the world.In any construction project, delivery of equipment and materials is a challenge to logistical expertise. The construction of a mine in the Northwest Territories is infinitely more complex. Permanent roads would be prohibitively expensive to build, so the only vehicular access is therefore the winter ice road, which is open, on average, for around eight weeks each winter. Anything the mine requires that has to be delivered by road, including fuel, buildings and heavy equipment too bulky to be transported by air, has to come up the ice road in an eight week window in the coldest part of the winter. Construction work in 2006 was focused on the delivery and erection of the permanent buildings for the operations phase of the mine. ÔÇ£You have to have your planning done well ahead of time,ÔÇØ says Gowans, ÔÇ£and your engineering, because if itÔÇÖs custom designed you have to have your steel already designed and fabricated, inspected and ready for shipment. If youÔÇÖre doing it yourself you have to make sure your contractors have their equipment and everything up there.ÔÇØThe 2006 winter, however, turned out be one of the warmest on record in the NWT, meaning lighter load restrictions on the winter road. The number of planned loads therefore had to be increased to deliver all the necessary supplies; 2300 loads in all were scheduled to supply Snap Lake for the 2006 construction season. When the road closed on March 26th, however, earlier than usual, 600 truckloads were still outstanding. The majority of the missing material and equipment had to be flown into Snap Lake, at significantly greater cost, but a critical piece of equipment for the process plant was too heavy to fly. Jim Gowans has been associated with Yellowknife for over 30 yearsÔÇöÔÇ£IÔÇÖm one of the crazy people who have lived in Yellowknife not once but twice,ÔÇØ he jokesÔÇöand has noted the effects of global warming from his observation of local conditions. ÔÇ£I used to sail racing dinghies in Great Slave Lake, so I took notice in the spring when there was enough open water to sail, and again in the fall when it iced over. In the 30 years IÔÇÖve been associated with it that open water season has extended three weeks, so itÔÇÖs evolving at around one week per decadeÔÇöand itÔÇÖs accelerated in the last 10 to 12 years.ÔÇØBut itÔÇÖs an ill wind that blows no-one any good; while the warm winter adversely affected shipping, it did allow an early spring pouring of concrete, and the erection of steel structures commenced earlier than originally scheduled. Plans for this had to be modified, however, as the piece if equipment that failed to arrive on the winter road was the scrubber for the process plant. Holding up construction was out of the question, so a special panel was built into the roof, which could be opened later to allow the scrubber to be lowered through it. Meanwhile, work had been continuing underground, too, including construction of the conveyor tunnel and four access points to it. Work continued in 2006 to complete the┬á 1.6 kilometer conveyor ramp to surface, and to install the associated ventilation systems. But why is Snap Lake CanadaÔÇÖs first fully underground mine? I wonder. ÔÇ£Snap Lake is a unique diamond mine,ÔÇØ says Gowans. Diamonds are usually found in kimberlite pipes formed millions of years ago under intense pressure and high temperature at depths up to a hundred miles below the earthÔÇÖs surface. Deep volcanic eruptions propel the diamonds upwards, embedded in the kimberlite. The rock, incidentally, was named kimberlite after the first recognized diamond deposits were found in Kimberley, South Africa in the 1870s. ÔÇ£Snap Lake doesnÔÇÖt mine a kimberlite pipe,ÔÇØ says Gowans, ÔÇ£it mines a dyke. The volcanic eruption came up through the earthÔÇÖs crust and hit a strong and durable rock formation, so instead of breaking through it and exploding up onto the top, it actually hit the hard rock and ran like a ribbon of material on the underside of the rock. ItÔÇÖs a very thin sheet thatÔÇÖs been contorted and twisted by the rock formations, and it slopes at about 15 degrees.ÔÇØUnderground mining is expensive, so equipment has to be chosen that will do the job most efficiently. ÔÇ£The ore is in a thin ribbon between 1.9 meters and 3.4 meters thick,ÔÇØ says Gowans. ÔÇ£The best way to mine it is to use low profile equipment.ÔÇØ The equipment that De Beers has selected to use underground is trackless and low to the ground, making it easier to access areas of low overhead clearance and small spaces. The primary entrance to the mine is therefore a mere five meters wide by 4.5 meters high. The ore will be mined using a modified room and pillar method. Segments of the kimberlite will be extracted in caverns separated by pillars of ore. The pillars themselves will be systematically extracted and replaced with a backfill made of processed kimberlite and cement. Kimberlite will be hauled to an underground crusher, and the crushed ore will be taken by conveyor to the process plant. Some of the processed kimberlite will then be dewatered and mixed with cement to form the paste backfill to be pumped back into the mine through a pipeline distribution system to fill the voids left after the ore is mined out. The remaining processed kimberlite will be spread on the surface of the ground to blend into the surrounding topography. Everything I have described about the process of diamond mining above has had a high level of complexity. Once youÔÇÖve got the kimberlite out of the mine, however, the process seems to be relatively simple. Diamonds are not chemically attached to the host rock, so recovery is more like harvesting than processing; the diamondsÔÇÖ inherent properties are used to isolate them. Having said that, however, we must remember that even where diamonds are found in relative abundance, they are like needles in a haystack. Hundreds of tons of material a day must be processed to reveal a handful of precious stones. Recovery of diamonds starts with comminution, the breakage and fracture techniques used to reduce the size of the ore particles in the feed material, from which they are subsequently liberated. De Beers has worked closely with comminution equipment manufacturers over the years to develop processing equipment that is effective in the reduction of particle size without damaging the diamonds. ÔÇ£We have specialized crushing plant to minimize the amount of breakage,ÔÇØ says Gowans. ÔÇ£If a big diamond goes through the crusher and gets smashed, you lose a lot of value.ÔÇØThe next step is concentration, also known as dense medium separation (DMS), using the relative density differential between the diamonds and the host rock to separate the diamonds into a small parcel of high density material. The feed material is mixed with a suspension of finely ground ferrosilicon slurry, and then pumped or gravity fed into a cyclone (a dynamic separator which uses centrifugal force to effect separation) which produces a concentrate containing diamonds and high density material. The ferrosilicon is recovered on floats and sinks screens for re-use. Concentrate from the DMS plant can be dried first or processed wet through a magnetic separation process. The non-magnetic fraction is then bombarded with X-rays which causes the diamonds to fluoresce. They can then be ejected from the process stream. After X-ray recovery, laser sorters are used to concentrate the diamonds to greater than 95 percent diamond by weight, using the unique molecular signature of the diamond to distinguish it. The final diamond concentrate is packed and weighed prior to being shipped to the final sorting, cleaning and valuation facility. But De Beers CanadaÔÇÖs obligations towards the local economy do not end when the diamonds are extracted. The Government of the Northwest Territories (GNWT) has a policy of support for the secondary diamond industry within its jurisdiction. In February, agreement was reached between De Beers Canada and GNWT, which includes a provision that, from 2008, De Beers will make available for sale ten percent of the diamonds (by value) from the Snap Lake Mine, in economically cuttable categories, to GNWT approved manufacturers who have successfully fulfilled the selection criteria of De BeersÔÇÖ sales and marketing arm, Diamond Trading Company (DTC). Diamonds produced from Snap Lake will be sorted in Yellowknife for royalty valuation purposes in accordance with the requirements of the Canada Mining Regulations. They will be prepared in London, England, however, for sale to DTC clients. To verify the identity of the Snap Lake production, the GNWT will have the right to monitor both the valuation process in Yellowknife and the London process for selling ten percent of Snap Lake Diamonds. De Beers has also committed to provide training for NWT residents in diamond sorting.Brendan Bell, Minister of Industry, Tourism and Investment in the GNWT, led a GNWT delegation to the DTC in London on the invitation of De Beers CanadaÔÇÖs NWT vice president, Chantal Lavoie. ÔÇ£The purpose of inviting the GNWT to the DTC was to show how the Snap Lake diamonds will flow through the DTC, where they will be prepared and made available for sale to GNWT approved manufacturers for purchase,ÔÇØ said Lavoie. ÔÇ£Ensuring the GNWT has an understanding of, and supports, De BeersÔÇÖ sorting and selling processes and its global distribution and marketing initiatives was an important part of this visit.ÔÇØ ÔÇ£De Beers has demonstrated how Snap Lake diamonds will be prepared and made available for sale,ÔÇØ said Minister Bell. ÔÇ£I am confident that GNWT approved manufacturers, who qualify as DTC clients, will have equitable access to Snap Lake rough diamonds and that we will be able to certify these diamonds as mined, cut and polished in the NWT.ÔÇØ Once in full production, Snap Lake will employ 500 workers, 250 of whom will be on-site at any one time. With an indicated resource of 1.4 million tonnes, and inferred resources of 25 million tonnes, the life of the mine is estimated at 20 years.De BeersÔÇÖ Victor Project is located in the James Bay Lowlands of Northern Ontario, approximately 90 km (55 miles) west of the coastal community of Attawapiskat. In June 2005, the Attawapiskat First Nation voted in favour (85.5 percent) of ratifying the Impact Benefit Agreement (IBA). In August 2005, De Beers received approval by the Federal Minister of the Environment for the Victor Project Comprehensive Study Environmental Assessment (EA). Construction of the mine began in February 2006, after the necessary permits were granted. The Victor Project will employ approximately 600 people during construction and 375 permanent positions will be created during mining and processing operations. Construction of the site infrastructure and processing facilities is underway and production is scheduled to begin in the first half of 2008. It will be the first diamond mine in Ontario and the second in Canada for De Beers.Victor is one of 18 kimberlite pipes discovered on the property, 16 of which are diamondiferous. The Victor kimberlite consists of two pipes that coalesce at the surface, Victor Main and Victor Southwest. The mine will be open-pit with an expected life of 12 years. The processing plant will treat 2.5 million tonnes of kimberlite per year (about 700 tonnes per day). As with Snap Lake, Victor will also rely on winter road access for the transportation of equipment and supplies. Personnel will be transported to the site by air with pick-up stops at the coastal communities and Timmins. All the challenges mentioned above are part of the overall challenge for De Beers Canada in its own evolution. ÔÇ£We are in transition from an exploration company to a fully integrated operating company,ÔÇØ says Gowans. ÔÇ£We want to develop a portfolio of new prospects right across Canada.ÔÇØ So there will be more De Beers diamond mines in Canada? ÔÇ£ThatÔÇÖs my goal.ÔÇØ Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} *┬á┬á┬á┬á┬á┬á┬á┬á┬á *┬á┬á┬á┬á┬á┬á┬á┬á┬á * Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} First published July 2007